Abraham Lincoln as constitutional radical: The 13th amendment July 12, 2013 by Abigail Perkiss In recent weeks, Americans have looked on as the nation’s highest court has handed down decisions seeking to reconcile fundamental questions about the scope of the U.S. Constitution. Passed by Congress on January 31, 1865, and ratified on December 6, 1865, the 13th amendment abolished slavery in the United States and provides that "Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction. This Constitutional Amendment would provide for the process in which the President and Vice-President of the United States would be elected, creating what is now known as the Electoral College. ". The 13th Amendment’s exclusion still exists on the federal and state level today. Several states who mirrored the Constitution, such as Colorado, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Wisconsin, legally allow for the usage of slavery and involuntary labor against incarcerated people. The Titles of Nobility Amendment was presented to states in 1810 and was ratified by 12 states; it would have revoked the U.S. citizenship of anyone accepting a foreign title of nobility or foreign payment without Congressional authorization. Virginia became the 13th state, pushing the Amendment over the finish line in 1819. The Twelfth Amendment (Amendment XII) to the United States Constitution provides the procedure for electing the president and vice president.It replaced the procedure provided in Article II, Section 1, Clause 3, by which the Electoral College originally functioned. Though there was already a procedure in place to elect the President and Vice-President, the original proved to have some fallacies which were made apparent in the 1796 and 1800 elections. The Thirteenth Amendment by Gordon Leidner of Great American History The 13th Amendment to the United States Constitution, passed by the Senate on April 8, 1864, by the House on January 31, 1865, and ratified on December 6, 1865, abolished slavery as a legal institution. 12 ratified the Amendment, and then the War of 1812 broke out. Two previous amendments proposed by Congress would have become the 13th Amendment, but were not ratified.

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